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MLA TV/Radio Citation

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How to cite a TV / Radio program in a bibliography using MLA

The most basic citation for a radio or television program consists of the episode title, the program/series name, the broadcasting network, the original broadcast date, and the location (if applicable).

“Episode Title.” Program/Series Name. Broadcasting Network Name, Original Broadcast Date. Location (if applicable).

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, 17 Feb. 2009.

or

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, 17 Feb. 2009. DVD.

Begin the citation with the episode name or number inside double quotation marks, followed by a period. Follow that with the name of the program or series, which is italicized, followed by a period. If necessary, include the name of the network on which the program was broadcast, followed by a comma. If the program was broadcast on a local affiliate of a national network, include the call letters and city of the local station, separated by a comma, after the name of the network. Follow the city with a comma and the date.

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, WNYW, New York City, 17 Feb. 2009.

State the date on which your program was originally broadcast, followed by a period. Write the complete date in the international format (i.e., day-month-year). With the exception of May, June, and July, you should abbreviate month names (four letters for September, three letters for all other months) and follow the date with a period. When it will help readers find the exact location or format of the episode, include the location (e.g., DVD, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video app) at the end of the citation separated from the date element with a period after the date and a period to end the citation.

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, WNYW, New York City, 17 Feb. 2009. DVD.

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, WNYW, New York City, 17 Feb. 2009. Netflix, www.netflix.com.

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox. WNYW, New York City, 17 Feb. 2009. Amazon Prime Video app.

If your discussion focuses on their contribution, you may also include the names of specific personnel involved with the program. Place the personnel names after the episode title if they contributed to that particular episode. Place the personnel names after the program/series title if they contributed to that entire work.

For example, you may cite the creator of the television/radio show, the writer of the entire program, the writer of one particular episode, the director of the program, the director of an individual episode, or a performance by someone you discuss in your project. Group different types of personnel together and separate each personnel group by a comma. Write these personnel names in normal order— do not reverse the first and last names.

“The Robbery.” Seinfeld: The Complete First Season, created by Larry David and Jerry Seinfeld, performances by Jerry Seinfeld and Julia Louis-Dreyfus, episode 3, Fox, 7 June 1990, disc 1. DVD.

If you need to cite just a program/series, not an individual episode, begin the citation with the program/series name, followed by the relevant personnel. For a series, cite the first year of airing in place of the specific broadcast date.

Seinfeld, created by Larry David, Fox, 1989.

Breaking the Magicians’ Code: Magic’s Biggest Secrets Finally Revealed. Narrated by Mitch Pileggi, Fox, 24 Nov. 1997.

If you are citing a transcript of the program, the location element of the citation should include where the transcript was published (e.g., website title and URL), not the location where the program was broadcast. End the citation with the word “Transcript” in the optional-element slot, and end with a period.

“The Highlights of 100.” Seinfeld. Fox, 17 Feb. 2009. Seinfeld Scripts, www.seinfeldscripts.com. Transcript.

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Portrait of American novelist Henry Miller (1891 – 1980), 1950s. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

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